Brand new semantic advice which is of goods next-door neighbor during the the fresh new lexicon will not, to put it differently, have a specs regarding sex; neighbors try unclear (or general, or unspecified) about what aspect away from sex
Polysemy ‘s the well-known name with the disease where a good lexical product features one or more meaning, for example whenever late can mean ‘following typical, requested, otherwise arranged time’ (I am later once more), ‘state-of-the-art in go out otherwise night’ (a later part of the dining), otherwise ‘not alive’ (my personal later brother Polly). Terminologically speaking, polysemy needs to be contrasted having homonymy and you may, more to the point, vagueness. When a few (or more) terms and conditions have the same shape, eg lender (‘mountain, level in sea or river bed’) and you will financial (‘monetary institution’), he or she is homonyms; while polysemy identifies multiplicity of meaning in this an individual phrase, the latest multiplicity is distributed more various terms in the example of homonymy. As such, and come up with a big difference anywhere between polysemy and you will homonymy comes down to choosing whether we have been speaking about you to definitely together with same keyword otherwise that have one or two different styles. The newest difference in vagueness and you can polysemy requires the case of if or not a specific piece of semantic info is area of the fundamental semantic design of your product or perhaps is the result of good contextual (thus practical) requirements. For-instance, neighbors is not polysemous between the indication ‘men dweller second door’ and you will ‘women dweller next-door,’ in the same way the utterance my personal neighbors is an effective municipal slave won’t be thought to be demanding disambiguation in the manner in which she’s smart you are going to (Could you mean ‘bright’ or ‘stylish’?).
To choose anywhere between polysemy and you will vagueness, a lot of evaluating are going to be invoked. The 3 main of those are the following. Basic, of a truth-theoretic views, a beneficial lexical items are polysemous in the event it can while doing so become demonstrably real and certainly untrue of the identical referent. Because of the indication ‘harbor’ and you will ‘strengthened sweet wine of Portugal’ from vent, the brand new polysemy of these item is made of the phrases such Sandeman are an interface (in the a bottle), although not a port (having boats). It standards essentially captures an excellent semantic instinct: are a couple of perceptions out of certain term intuitively sufficiently different therefore that you can end up being considered implement additionally the almost every other perhaps not?
Particularly, he could be considering acceptability judgments throughout the phrases containing one or two associated occurrences of your items concerned (among and therefore matical relationships between both occurrences requires its semantic term, this new resulting sentence could be indicative to your polysemy out of the thing
2nd, linguistic screening encompass syntactic in lieu of semantic intuitions. Including, the brand new so-called identity attempt relates to ‘identity-of-feel anaphora.’ Thus, at midnight this new motorboat enacted the newest port, and so performed the brand new bartender is actually uncomfortable in case the two lexical definitions of vent has reached share. Overlooking puns, it will only indicate that new watercraft and the bartender alike introduced the fresh new harbor, or on the other hand you to one another went a specific form of drink out-of you to destination to other. A blended learning, in which the first thickness out of port refers to the harbor therefore the second so you’re able to drink, might be excluded. In comparison, the fact brand new impression ‘vintage sweet wine out of Portugal’ and you may ‘mixed sweet wine off Portugal’ might be combined in the Vintage Noval try a port, and therefore is combined Sandeman reveals that port is actually vague alternatively than just polysemous pertaining to brand new difference between blended and you will classic wine.
Third, the fresh new definitional criterion determine you to definitely something have multiple lexical meaning if there’s no minimally particular meaning within the expansion of item total, and this doesn’t have much more lexical definitions than simply you will find maximally general definitions needed to determine their expansion. Significance regarding lexical things will likely be maximally standard in the same way which they will be safeguards once the large a good subset of one’s expansion out of an item that you could. Thus, independent definitions having ‘mixed nice fortified wine out-of Portugal’ and you can ‘antique nice fortified wine from Portugal’ cannot meet the requirements meanings off lexical significance, as they can feel put together in definition ‘nice strengthened wines of Portugal.’ As well, significance are minimally particular in the same manner that they is to be sufficient to distinguish the thing from other nonsynonymous activities. A maximally general definition level both vent ‘harbor’ and you can port ‘variety of wine’ beneath the meaning ‘topic, entity’ try excluded as it cannot capture the brand new specificity of vent since the distinctive from other conditions.